Most visits are trouble-free. However, mugging and theft occur in cities and rural areas. Foreigners can be targeted.
There have been a number of violent attacks and muggings on the expatriate community in Atyrau and Aktau in western Kazakhstan, and in Astana and Almaty. Attacks have largely taken place at night, in and around local nightclubs and bars or when arriving at home late at night, as the majority of apartment buildings have dark stairwells and no lifts. Avoid walking alone and where possible pre-arrange transport. Keep valuables in a safe place and out of public view. Avoid travelling in unofficial taxis, particularly at night and alone, or if there is another passenger already in the car.
Robberies have occurred on trains, so always lock railway compartments on overnight trains.
Passenger lists on aircraft are not always kept confidential. There have been instances of people being met from an aircraft by someone using their name and then being robbed.
The following areas of Kazakhstan are closed to visitors unless prior permission has been received from the Foreign Ministry and the Interior Ministry, with the agreement of the Kazakh National Security Committee:
You should be aware that borders, particularly with Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, may be subject to closure without notice.
Additional checks and restrictions may remain in place at Uzbekistan’s borders following the recent death of President Karimov of Uzbekistan.
If you wish to drive in Kazakhstan you should apply for an International Driving Permit
Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus are a single Customs Union so if you’re planning to travel overland in your own vehicle make sure your customs declaration and temporary import licence are valid for the entire period of stay in all 3 countries. Your import licence can be extended for up to a year if necessary by contacting the customs authorities in any of the 3 countries.
Service stations are limited outside the main cities. Make sure you take all you need for your journey including water. Make sure your vehicle is properly maintained and in good condition for lengthy journeys.
Many roads are poorly maintained and road works or damaged roads are often not clearly signposted. Driving standards can be erratic. In some remote areas there are often stray animals on the roads. These are especially difficult to see in the dark. In winter, roads can become hazardous due to snow and ice.
Local traffic police only have the right to stop vehicles if an offence has been committed, but you should obey any request from the police to stop. The police officer should complete official papers relating to any alleged offence.
Many cars are not safely maintained and do not have rear seatbelts.
Don’t use local buses or mini-buses as they are poorly maintained.
Take care when crossing roads as pedestrian crossings are rarely respected.
On 6 December 2016, all Kazakh airlines were removed from the list of airlines banned from operating to/from the European Union. Pending clarity on the implications for domestic flights, UK government staff in Kazakhstan remain advised not to use any Kazakh airline other than Air Astana for domestic flights.
The International Air Transport Association publishes a list of registered airlines that have been audited and found to meet a number of operational safety standards and recommended practices. This list is not exhaustive and the absence of an airline from this list does not necessarily mean that it is unsafe.
In 2009 an audit of Kazakhstan’s Civil Aviation Authority by the International Civil Aviation Organisation found that the level of implementation of the critical elements of safety oversight in Kazakhstan was below the global average.
A list of incidents and accidents in Kazakhstan can be found on the website of the Aviation Safety network.
Local airlines don’t always run to flight schedule. Check your actual departure or arrival time in advance. Keep hold of your baggage tags, as you will need to show them when you leave the airport.
Public demonstrations are only permitted when authorised, so rarely take place. You should avoid any demonstrations or political gatherings. If you become aware of any nearby violence you should leave the area immediately.
There is a general threat from terrorism. Attacks could be indiscriminate, including in places visited by foreigners. Be alert to any security-related announcements by the Kazakh authorities. If in any doubt, keep in touch with the British Embassy in Astana.
There is considered to be a heightened threat of terrorist attack globally against UK interests and British nationals, from groups or individuals motivated by the conflict in Iraq and Syria. You should be vigilant at this time.
Find out more about the global threat from terrorism, how to minimise your risk and what to do in the event of a terrorist attack.
Kazakhstan has a secular constitution. You should respect local traditions, customs, laws and religions at all times and be aware of your actions to ensure that they do not offend other cultures or religious beliefs.
Possession and use of drugs is illegal; if found guilty, you could face a lengthy prison sentence in basic conditions.
Although homosexuality is not illegal, it is often not tolerated, especially outside the major cities.
You must carry your passport at all times (not a photocopy).
There are restrictions on photography near military establishments, border areas and some official buildings. Notices about these restrictions are not always indicated. Photographing airport facilities is prohibited. Many of the larger shops and supermarkets also prohibit photography.
The information on this page covers the most common types of travel and reflects the UK government’s understanding of the rules currently in place. Unless otherwise stated, this information is for travellers using a full ‘British Citizen’ passport.
The authorities in the country or territory you’re travelling to are responsible for setting and enforcing the rules for entry. If you’re unclear about any aspect of the entry requirements, or you need further reassurance, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.
You should also consider checking with your transport provider or travel company to make sure your passport and other travel documents meet their requirements.
Until 31 December 2017 you can travel to Kazakhstan without a visa, provided your stay does not exceed 30 days (the day you arrive counts as day 1, regardless of arrival time). If you wish to stay longer than 30 days, you’ll need a visa. You should contact your nearest Embassy of Kazakhstan for further information.
Make sure you have the right visa for the purpose of your travel, especially for business visas or work permits. Check the validity dates of your visa and any associated restrictions carefully before you travel.
If you violate the conditions of your visa, you could face a short term of imprisonment and/or a ban on entry to Kazakhstan for up to 5 years. Overstaying the date written on your white immigration card may result in similar penalties, regardless of the validity of your visa.
Don’t cross the border into or out of Kazakhstan illegally.
For most visits, British passport holders don’t need to register with the local authorities providing you arrive at one of the 12 international airports. Check with local oblast authorities as some oblasts still insist on the registration requirement for visitors even for short stays.
If you don’t need to register with the local OVIR office (the Department for Visas and Registration under the Ministry of Internal Affairs), you must keep your white immigration card stamped by Kazakh Immigration throughout your journey and present it on departure. If you intend to enter through a land or sea border point check with the Kazakhstan Embassy to see whether registration is required.
For visits of more than 90 days you will need to register with the local authorities OVIR. Your travel company or employer may do this for you.
Your passport should be valid for a minimum period of 6 months from the date of your request for a visa. Your passport should also have at least 1 blank page for your visa.
UK Emergency Travel Documents (ETDs) are accepted for entry (with a valid Kazakh visa), airside transit and exit from Kazakhstan. If using an ETD to leave Kazakhstan, you must get an exit visa from OVIR (the Department for Visas and Registration under the Ministry of Internal Affairs). This process can take 5 working days or longer.
Dual nationality isn’t recognised in Kazakhstan. If you enter Kazakhstan on a Kazakh passport and also hold British nationality the British Embassy can only provide very limited consular assistance. In cases of arrest or detention, consular access is unlikely to be granted.
The government of Kazakhstan imposes limits on how much foreign currency can be imported or exported, and certain goods are subject to custom regulations. For further information please visit the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Check whether you need a yellow fever certificate by visiting the National Travel Health Network and Centre’s TravelHealthPro website.
Visit your health professional at least 4 to 6 weeks before your trip to check whether you need any vaccinations or other preventive measures. Country specific information and advice is published by the National Travel Health Network and Centre on the TravelHealthPro website and by NHS (Scotland) on the fitfortravel website. Useful information and advice about healthcare abroad is also available on the NHS Choices website.
The reciprocal healthcare agreement between the UK and Kazakhstan terminated on 1 January 2016.
The medical facilities in Kazakhstan are not as advanced as those in the UK. Make sure you have adequate travel health insurance and accessible funds to cover the cost of any medical treatment abroad, evacuation by air ambulance and repatriation.
There are regular outbreaks of haemorrhagic fever (a tick-borne disease) in southern Kazakhstan in spring and summer, which have caused deaths.
There are ongoing reports of lead pollution in the southern city of Shymkent and immediately surrounding areas.
If you need emergency medical assistance during your trip, dial 103 and ask for an ambulance, although the emergency services operators only speak Kazakh or Russian and waiting times for ambulances can be lengthy. If possible it is often quicker to take a taxi to the hospital. You should contact your insurance/medical assistance company promptly if you are referred to a medical facility for treatment.
Almaty is in an active seismic zone, but the last major earthquake involving loss of life was in 1927. The US Federal Emergency Management Agency has advice about what to do before, during and after an earthquake.