There is a general threat from terrorism. Attacks could be indiscriminate including in places visited by foreigners. You should be vigilant at all times, especially in crowded areas and public places like transport hubs, hotels, restaurants, bars and places of worship and during major gatherings like religious or sporting events.
There was an explosion at the Anwar Mosque in the Merkato area of central Addis Ababa on 11 December 2015.
In October 2013, a bomb in Addis Ababa killed 2 people, and in November 2013, Ethiopian security officials said that they believed that terrorist groups plan to carry out attacks in Addis Ababa and other parts of Ethiopia. Further attacks are likely.
The terrorist group Al-Shabaab, although based in Somalia, poses a threat across the East Africa region. The group continues to link attacks in the region to Ethiopia’s military presence in Somalia as part of an African Union peacekeeping mission, and continues to threaten all countries who have military forces in Somalia.
In the past 4 years, Al Shabaab has claimed responsibility for attacks in Uganda, Djibouti and Kenya. The ultimate aim of Al-Shabaab is to establish an Islamic Caliphate in the wider region, including parts of Ethiopia.
A number of indigenous Ethiopian and ethnic Somali groups which operate in Ethiopia are actively engaged in a militant campaign against the Ethiopian government, with most of their activity centered on the Ogaden region.
There is a threat of kidnapping in Ethiopia’s Somali region, particularly in the eastern areas to which the FCO advise against all travel. You should be vigilant, particularly in towns and cities in the Somali region of Ethiopia, even in areas where the FCO do not advise against all travel. The long-standing policy of the British government is not to make substantive concessions to hostage takers. The British government considers that paying ransoms and releasing prisoners increases the risk of further hostage taking. The Terrorism Act (2000) also makes payments to terrorists illegal.
There is considered to be a heightened threat of terrorist attack globally against UK interests and British nationals, from groups or individuals motivated by the conflict in Iraq and Syria. You should be vigilant at this time.
Find out more about the global threat from terrorism, how to minimise your risk and what to do in the event of a terrorist attack.
Petty theft and mugging is common and on the rise. Take particular care when visiting crowded public places, especially at night. There have been incidents of assaults occurring around the Bole area at night. Keep valuables like cameras and passports out of sight. Be aware of the risk of pick-pocketing, and bag and jewellery snatching including from vehicles stopped at traffic lights in Addis Ababa. Incidents involving parked and unattended cars are on the increase. When parking in Addis Ababa, leave your car in a well lit and guarded area. Consider fitting anti-shatter film to all windows on your vehicle.
Large crowds are common on key national and religious dates. These include 7 January (Ethiopian Christmas); 19 January (Epiphany/’Timket’); 2 March (Victory of Adawa); 5 May (Ethiopian Patriots’ Victory Day); 28 May (Downfall of the Derg); 11/12 September (Ethiopian New Year); 27 September (The Finding of the True Cross/’Meskel’). Large crowds also gather on Ethiopian Easter; Eid (End of Ramadan); Eid Al Arafa and the Birthday of the Prophet Mohammed.
There have been a small number of cases of arbitrary detention of British nationals in Ethiopia in recent years. There is a risk that this could reoccur – particularly where tensions are heightened (for example around major events, or in locations that might be deemed sensitive for security reasons). You should carry copies of your passport and the contact details of the British Embassy, Addis Ababa at all times. This may help if you’re questioned or detained. However, you should be aware that the Ethiopian authorities have in many cases failed to meet their international obligations to notify Embassies when foreign nationals have been detained. Even if requested, adequate consular access is not always granted.
When travelling outside Addis Ababa consider travelling in a party and leave details of your travel itinerary with a reliable person. Carry a comprehensive medical pack. Telephones, including the sole mobile network, are unreliable. Wherever possible do not leave vehicles unattended. The Entoto hills near Addis Ababa are a popular spot with tourists and expatriates but there has been a recent increase in break-ins on unattended vehicles. In January 2014 there was an attempted robbery against a lone female on the Entoto walking trail.
Health and Safety precautions like life jackets in boats or protective railings at historical sites are rarely in place in Ethiopia.
Demonstrations and violent clashes took place in the Amhara region in 2016. In August 2016 there were violent clashes between protestors and security forces in Gonder, Bahir Dar, and Debretabor.
On 4 January 2017, there were reports of an explosion near the Grand Hotel in Bahir Dar; no casualties were reported. On 10 January 2017, there was an explosion at the Intasole Hotel in Gondar; one person is reported to have died and 6 people injured.
There were been widespread protests across the Oromia Region in 2016, with West and South West Shewa zones particularly affected including the popular tourist destination of the Wenchi crater. Some protests turned violent and resulted in casualties; others caused severe disruption to road travel.
On 2 October 2016 up to 100 people died during a stampede at the Irreechaa religious festival in Oromia. On 8 October 2016 a number of farms and properties were destroyed in Gelana (Borena Zone), Yirga Chefe and Dilla (Sidama Zone). On 4 October, 2016, a US national travelling by car was killed by rocks thrown by protestors on the road from Holeta to Addis Ababa.
In December 2011, two Swedish journalists were found guilty of supporting terrorism having entered Ethiopia illegally from Somalia. Any journalist wishing to operate legitimately in Ethiopia should get the necessary accreditation.
The Ethiopian military attacked targets across the Eritrean border in March 2012. There is a risk of further violence close to the border between Ethiopia and Eritrea.
There are cross-border tensions in the Tigray and Afar regions and the security situation has deteriorated. Take great care if you travel on the road from Addis Ababa to Djibouti, including via Asaita, due the high number of road traffic accidents.
There is banditry in the areas bordering Sudan, South Sudan and Kenya. If you are crossing into Kenya or Sudan, keep to the main road and seek advice from local authorities about travelling in convoy.
There is local instability, lawlessness, military activity and a general risk of banditry in the Somali region. Since the mid-1990s, insurgent groups, some affiliated with terrorist organisations, have clashed with government forces, particularly in the Ogaden. Foreigners have been caught up in the violence or targeted. There have been attacks on staff working for international NGOs. Avoid overnight stays unless you are in secure accommodation.
There has been violence, inter-tribal clashes and armed attacks in the Gambella region. While foreigners have not been targeted, there is a risk of being caught up in the violence. Tensions remain high in the region with the possibility of further clashes. In late January and early February 2016, ethnic tensions in Gambella city and surrounding areas resulted in a number of casualties. Federal authorities were deployed and a curfew imposed. A cross-border raid on 15 April 2016 in Jikawo, part of the Gambella region on the border with South Sudan, resulted in 208 civilians being killed. There were also been reports of clashes between different groups in the Gambella region on 21 April 2016, resulting in 17 people being killed.
On 7 November 2016 in the Surma Woreda near Mizan in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People’s Region, a group of Czech and Slovak Nationals were attacked and robbed by armed men who threw rocks at their car, seriously injuring one. Their Ethiopian driver was shot and subsequently died.
There has in recent weeks been widespread disruption to road travel across parts of Ethiopia. Unauthorised and official roadblocks can appear with little or no warning. If you encounter a roadblock you should follow the advice of local authorities at the roadblock, if they’re present. If you encounter an unmanned roadblock, turn around and don’t attempt to pass it.
Under Ethiopian laws, drivers involved in car accidents can face severe punishments, including custodial sentences and fines.
Driving standards are poor, and traffic accidents are common and sadly often fatal. You should be very careful when travelling by car.
You should avoid driving after dark in rural areas: vehicles often have no lights and livestock may be roaming the roads.
Traffic accidents are a regular occurrence in Ethiopia and Addis Ababa specifically. If you are involved in a traffic accident you should remain with your vehicle and call the local police. You should avoid confrontation and await the arrival of the police to resolve the matter.
Protests and demonstrations sometimes take place in Addis Ababa and other cities. In the past, some of these have become violent. You should avoid any protests or demonstrations.
There is a large Muslim population and generally Ethiopians dress in a conservative manner. You should respect local traditions, customs, laws and religions at all times and be aware of your actions to ensure that they do not offend, especially during the holy month of Ramadan or if you intend to visit religious areas.
The Ethiopian Highlands are mostly Orthodox Christian with ‘fasting’ each Wednesday, Friday and during Lent when only vegetarian dishes are available (except in larger hotels).
You will need an export certificate to take antiques out of the country, otherwise the items are likely to be confiscated and you may face prosecution.
Owning ivory is strictly prohibited. A number of British nationals found with ivory jewellery have had their items confiscated by authorities and fined between 5,000 – 25,000 birr. Homosexual acts (applying to both sexes) are illegal, and carry penalties of between 1 and 15 years imprisonment.
Drug offences are treated seriously in Ethiopia. Don’t become involved with drugs of any kind.
It is illegal to carry more than 200 birr when entering or leaving Ethiopia. If you are found to be carrying in excess of 200 birr the money will be seized and a prison sentence is possible.
You must declare to customs officials on entry or exit any cash in excess of $3,000 (or the equivalent in other foreign currencies)Travellers leaving Ethiopia with more than $3,000 must present a bank advice notice if the currency was purchased from a local bank or a valid customs declaration form obtained at the point of entry. A bank advice notice or customs declaration form becomes invalid if 45 days or more have elapsed since the date of issue.
The information on this page covers the most common types of travel and reflects the UK government’s understanding of the rules currently in place. Unless otherwise stated, this information is for travellers using a full ‘British Citizen’ passport.
The authorities in the country or territory you’re travelling to are responsible for setting and enforcing the rules for entry. If you’re unclear about any aspect of the entry requirements, or you need further reassurance, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.
You should also consider checking with your transport provider or travel company to make sure your passport and other travel documents meet their requirements.
You will need a visa to enter Ethiopia. Visas on arrival are only available for tourists at Addis Ababa (Bole) or Dire Dawa International airports, at a cost of approximately $US50 for 1 month and $US75 for 3 months (Euros, US dollars and Ethiopian birr are all accepted). All other categories of visitor must get a visa from the Ethiopian Embassy closest to their place of legal residence before travelling. Penalties for overstaying your visa can be severe (see below - Immigration Status).
If you travel to Ethiopia as a tourist you won’t be able to take employment, including voluntary employment. If you are caught in breach of your immigration status you may face a severe fine or possible imprisonment.
Your passport should be valid for a minimum period of 6 months from the date of entry into Ethiopia. Make sure you have two blank pages in your passport on arrival.
Check whether you need a yellow fever certificate by visiting the National Travel Health Network and Centre’s TravelHealthPro website.
Once you are in Ethiopia you will not be able to change your immigration status. If you have any concerns about your immigration status in Ethiopia, you should contact the local immigration authorities:
Security, Immigration and Refugee Affairs Authority
P.O.Box 5741 Addis Ababa Ethiopia Telephone: (+251-11) 1553899
Tourist visitors to Ethiopia should be aware that they will be unable to take employment, including voluntary employment, whilst visiting Ethiopia on a tourist visa. If visitors are caught in breach of their immigration status they may face severe fines or possible imprisonment.
UK Emergency Travel Documents are accepted for entry, airside transit and exit from Ethiopia.
Visit your health professional at least 4 to 6 weeks before your trip to check whether you need any vaccinations or other preventive measures. Country specific information and advice is published by the National Travel Health Network and Centre on the TravelHealthPro website and by NHS (Scotland) on the fitfortravel website. Useful information and advice about healthcare abroad is also available on the NHS Choices website.
There are a number of hospitals in Addis Ababa but only private hospitals offer a reasonable standard of basic care for minor health problems. Elsewhere, medical facilities (including dentistry) are extremely poor. You should carry a comprehensive medical pack when travelling out of Addis Ababa. Make sure you have adequate travel health insurance and accessible funds to cover the cost of any medical treatment abroad, evacuation by air ambulance and repatriation.
In December 2013, an outbreak of dengue fever was reported in Dire Dawa City. In June 2013 an outbreak of Yellow Fever was reported in South Omo Zone and the World Health Organisation launched a mass-vaccination programme to contain the outbreak.
Malaria is common in areas of the country below 2,000 metres.
Bilharzia is present in the majority of lakes in Ethiopia.
Water-borne diseases are common. Drink or use only boiled or bottled water and avoid ice in drinks.
Addis Ababa sits at 2,400 metres above sea level.
If you need emergency medical assistance during your trip, dial 907 and ask for an ambulance. You should contact your insurance/medical assistance company promptly if you are referred to a medical facility for treatment.
Credit cards are accepted at only a very few outlets in Addis Ababa. It is not normally possible to get currency advances against a credit card. Make sure you have an adequate supply of hard currency or travellers-cheques.