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Safety and security


Crime levels are low but take sensible precautions with your personal safety. Don’t walk around late at night alone. Keep valuables, particularly cameras and passports, out of sight. Keep a photocopy of the personal details page of your passport in a safe place, or with friends or family in the UK.

A large proportion of the population has access to arms under the government of Eritrea’s civilian militia programme. We have no evidence that these weapons have increased the threat of violent crime.

Local travel

The FCO advise against all travel within 25km of Eritrea’s border with Ethiopia. In most places the border is neither marked nor obvious. There have been serious border clashes between Eritrea and Ethiopia in the past. Tensions remain high and there is a risk of further violence.

The border remains closed and is reported to be mined. In September 2011 a landmine exploded on the road between Senafe and Afoma killing five people.

The FCO advise against all travel within 25 km of Eritrea’s border with Djibouti. In 2008 there was fighting between Djibouti and Eritrea after an incursion of Eritrean forces into the disputed Djibouti border region. The situation remains unresolved.

The FCO advise against all travel to Eritrea’s border with Sudan, including the town of Tesseney and areas north and west of Nakh’fa, Ak’ordat and Barentu. In 2009, an attack on an international mining company vehicle on a road 35km north of Keren caused the deaths of one employee and two contractors.

There are extensive mine fields in Eritrea. Driving on main roads away from border areas is generally safe. Avoid driving on non-metalled roads and walking or hiking in the countryside.

Avoid travelling after dark in rural areas. Road signage and barriers are scarce, and steep drops are common. In many parts of the country roads are difficult or impassable during the rainy season.

Due to the proximity of the Hanish islands in the Red Sea to the ongoing conflict in Yemen, it’s highly unlikely permission would be granted to visit the south western Hanish islands that belong to Eritrea.

Mobile telephones

Telephone networks are often unreliable and may only work for limited periods each day outside Asmara and larger towns. There are no agreements between Eritrean mobile telephone providers and international providers. You will not be able to receive or send calls or SMS text messages from any overseas mobile phone network on arrival in Eritrea. Local SIM cards can’t be purchased without a resident’s permit. There have been unconfirmed reports that phone calls made on the local mobile phone network are recorded.

Electronic items

All electronic items (laptops, mobile phones, cameras etc) should be declared upon arrival. Failure to do so may result in their confiscation by Eritrean customs officials when you depart.

Travel permits

All foreign nationals need a travel permit to leave Asmara. There are checkpoints outside of Asmara where your travel permit will be checked. Those working outside Asmara also need a travel permit to leave their area of residence or work. Applications in Asmara are handled by the relevant Ministry. For business travellers, applications are dealt with by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Applications outside Asmara are handled by the local Zoba (Region) Administration Offices. Permission may take several days to be granted and is sometimes refused or delayed.

Tourists wishing to travel outside Asmara should apply for a travel permit at the Ministry of Tourism located on Harnet Avenue in Asmara. Processing usually takes around 24 hours. When applying for permission to travel outside of Asmara, you should supply details of the car you’ll be travelling in. There have been reports of tourists not being permitted to use public transport to travel outside of Asmara and having to rent a car or use a private taxi.

Restrictions on travel by foreign nationals apply equally to foreign diplomats. Staff from the British Embassy therefore can’t provide consular assistance to British nationals outside Asmara.

Sea travel

Mariners must seek permissions and entry visas before attempting to land in Eritrea.

While there have been no successful piracy attacks since May 2012 off the coast of Somalia and in the Gulf of Aden, the threat of piracy related activity and armed robbery in the Gulf of Aden and Indian Ocean remains significant. Reports of attacks on local fishing dhows in the area around the Gulf of Aden and Horn of Africa continue. The combined threat assessment of the international Naval Counter Piracy Forces remains that all sailing yachts under their own passage should remain out of the designated High Risk Area or face the risk of being hijacked and held hostage for ransom. For more information and advice, see our Piracy and armed robbery at sea page.

Consular assistance

There are serious constraints on what the British Embassy can do to help British nationals in Eritrea. Foreign diplomats in Asmara must apply ten days in advance for permission to travel outside Asmara. This means that the Embassy is unable to offer consular assistance to British nationals outside Asmara.

There are obstacles to the provision of consular assistance even in Asmara. The Eritrean authorities may not inform the relevant Embassy if a foreign national is in need of help and there have been recent instances where the Eritrean authorities have refused consular access to detained foreign nationals.


There is a low threat from terrorism, but you should be aware of the global risk of indiscriminate terrorist attacks which could be in public areas, including those frequented by expatriates and foreign travellers.

Be vigilant at all times, especially in crowded areas and public places like transport hubs, hotels, restaurants and bars and during major gatherings like sporting or religious events. Previous terrorist attacks in the region have targeted places where football matches are being viewed.

A number of terrorist incidents have been reported along the border with Ethiopia.

There is considered to be a heightened threat of terrorist attack globally against UK interests and British nationals, from groups or individuals motivated by the conflict in Iraq and Syria. You should be vigilant at this time.

Find out more about the global threat from terrorism, how to minimise your risk and what to do in the event of a terrorist attack.

Local laws and customs

Photographing government buildings and military installations is not allowed. If in doubt, ask first. You need a permit to take photographs of the ‘tank graveyard’ in Asmara. You can apply for one at the Ministry of Tourism.

Dress modestly, especially in lowland and predominantly Muslim areas. Shorts and T-shirts are likely to draw attention.

Homosexual behaviour is illegal, although the penalties are unclear. Be discreet.

Entry requirements

The information on this page covers the most common types of travel and reflects the UK government’s understanding of the rules currently in place. Unless otherwise stated, this information is for travellers using a full ‘British Citizen’ passport.

The authorities in the country or territory you’re travelling to are responsible for setting and enforcing the rules for entry. If you’re unclear about any aspect of the entry requirements, or you need further reassurance, you’ll need to contact the embassy, high commission or consulate of the country or territory you’re travelling to.

You should also consider checking with your transport provider or travel company to make sure your passport and other travel documents meet their requirements.


British nationals need a visa to enter Eritrea. Make sure any necessary travel documents including exit visas remain valid for the duration of your stay. The Eritrean authorities take breaches of immigration laws seriously and travellers who have overstayed can face lengthy delays regularising their position before departure, or even detention.

Passport validity

Your passport should be valid for a minimum period of six months from the date of entry to Eritrea and have two clear pages adjoining one another in your passport.

Dual nationals

Dual British/Eritrean nationals entering Eritrea will be classed as Eritrean nationals by the Eritrean authorities. The British Embassy is unable to gain consular access to, or obtain information on dual nationals if detained by the authorities or otherwise in need of assistance. Dual nationals entering Eritrea on an Eritrean identity card rather than an Eritrean passport will need an exit visa from the Immigration Office in Asmara to leave the country.  

Foreign currency

Foreign visitors must declare all foreign currency over 10,000 US dollars or equivalent on entering the country. There is no limit on the amount that can be brought in. Make sure you have had your completed foreign currency declaration form approved and stamped before you leave the airport.

If you declared currency on arrival, when you leave you will have to show that any foreign currency missing was exchanged at a branch of ’Himbol’, the State foreign currency exchange. If you spend any US dollars at an official hotel you must get a receipt to present along with the currency declaration form when you leave the country.

If you fail to comply with these regulations you may face prosecution leading to a heavy fine, as well as a delay to your departure.

Yellow fever certificate requirements

Check whether you need a yellow fever certificate by visiting the National Travel Health Network and Centre’s TravelHealthPro website.

UK Emergency Travel Documents

UK Emergency Travel Documents are accepted for entry, airside transit and exit from Eritrea.


Visit your health professional at least 4 to 6 weeks before your trip to check whether you need any vaccinations or other preventive measures. Country specific information and advice is published by the National Travel Health Network and Centre on the TravelHealthPro website and by NHS (Scotland) on the fitfortravel website. Useful information and advice about healthcare abroad is also available on the NHS Choices website.

Make sure you have adequate travel health insurance and accessible funds to cover the cost of any medical treatment abroad and repatriation.

There are three public hospitals in Asmara. Public hospitals in other towns are often poorly equipped.  Elsewhere medical facilities are even more limited. If you are travelling away from the large towns, carry a comprehensive medical pack with you.

If you are taking prescription medicines, you should make sure that you have a sufficient supply for the length of your stay in Eritrea.

If you need emergency medical assistance during your trip, dial 122244 and ask for an ambulance. You should contact your insurance/medical assistance company promptly if you are referred to a medical facility for treatment.


The economy is completely cash-based. There are no credit card or ATMs facilities in Eritrea. You will need to pay for everything in cash. Most hotels in Eritrea will require you to settle your hotel bill in US Dollars. It is illegal to use foreign currency to make purchases except at a limited number of officially-recognised hotels. You should get a receipt for any such purchases.

The currency in Eritrea is the Nakfa. Nakfa are not convertible outside Eritrea. You should convert any excess Nakfa back to hard currency at one of the ’Himbol’ exchanges in town, as there are limits to what can be converted at the ’Himbol’ branch at the airport. You will need the original currency transaction receipt. The Nakfa is currently pegged at the rate of 15 Nakfa to one US dollar.